Although the mechanism of action of antipsychotics has not yet been studied well enough yet, most experts think that they are able to block the receptors producing dopamine inside the brain. They are excessively active if the person has hallucinations, and other symptoms characteristic of a number of mental disorders. They can be used to treat some severe cases of schizophrenia or common bipolar disorder, as well as with autism-related irritation. Currently, second-generation antipsychotics are mostly used – they cause lesser side effects in comparison with the previous generation drugs.
Antipsychotics connected with metabolism often cause a slight increase in weight and sometimes increase the risk of developing diabetes. Other side effects of antipsychotics may include tremors, muscle spasms & restlessness, as well as dyskinesia – a chronic, sometimes irreversible disorder where some involuntarily movements of the hands, legs, tongue & lips are observed in a person. Although with the advent of second-generation antipsychotics, tardive dyskinesia has become less common, approximately 5% of patients taking such medications develop this disorder annually.
Antidepressants also apply to psychotropic drugs. They are used to treat various types of depression, from which 7% to 8% of the population suffers. About a third of them are diagnosed with severe depression.
Today, antidepressants from selective inhibitors are used most often – this is a relatively new type among the antidepressant. Drugs of this group affect the quantity of serotonin inside the body in general and brain in particular. Other antidepressants can make an effect on the level of dopamine – all these substances affect the psychological state of a person.
Most of these psychotropic drugs affect the level of dopamine – a substance that is associated with pleasure & attention. The most usual side effects of medications of this type are sleep troubles & poor appetite. These drugs embrace various medications, including Imovane and other tablets available in pharmacies.
Anxiolytics are psychotropic drugs that have a calming effect. They are often called tranquilizers, although, in reality, the group of tranquilizers is not only anxiolytics but also other types of medications, including neuroleptics. As a rule, anxiolytics may be prescribed in case of obsessive-compulsive syndrome, panic attacks, social phobia and other stress disorders. Because of the risk of addiction, the course of treatment is usually short. Side effects of anxiolytics can also be drowsiness, blurred vision & problems with sleep, including nightmares.
Mood stabilizers treat bipolar disorder and, according to estimates, 3% of population suffers from it. Stabilizers of such type can cause some side effects like thyroid gland troubles, weight increase, and bad mood.